Minerals & Metallurgy Processing

minerals1Minerals & Metallurgy art of treating crude ores and mineral products in order to separa  te the valuable minerals from the waste rock, or gangue. It is the first process that most ores undergo after mining in order to provide a more concentrated material for the procedures of extractive metallurgy. The primary operations are comminution and concentration, but there are other important operations in a modern mineral processing plant, including sampling and analysis and dewatering.

Mineralogical analysis: A successful separation of a valuable mineral from its ore can be determined by heavy-liquid testing, in which a single-sized fraction of a ground ore is suspended in a liquid of high specific gravity. Particles of less density than the liquid remain afloat, while denser particles sink. Several different fractions of particles with the same density (and, hence, similar composition) can be produced, and the valuable mineral components can then be determined by chemical analysis or by microscopic analysis of polished sections.minerals2

Mineralogy Diagram

Comminution :  In order to separate the valuable components of an ore from the waste rock, the minerals must be liberated from their interlocked state physically by comminution. As a rule, comminution begins by crushing the ore to below a certain size and finishes by grinding it into powder, the ultimate fineness of which depends on the fineness of dissemination of the desired mineral.

In primitive times, crushers were small, hand-operated pestles and mortars, and grinding was don  e by millstones turned by men, horses, or waterpower. Today, these processes are carried out in mechanized crushers and mills. Whereas crushing is done mostly under dry conditions, grinding mills can be operated both dry and wet, with wet grinding being predominant.

minerals3Crushing/grinding : Yet another development, combining the processes of crushing and grinding, is the roll crusher. This consists essentially of two cylinders that are mounted on horizontal shafts and driven in opposite directions. The cylinders are pressed together under high pressure, so that comminution takes place in the material bed between them.

Flotation separation : Flotation is the most widely used method for the concentr  ation of fine-grained minerals. It takes advantage of the different physicochemical surface properties of minerals—in particular, their wettability, which can be a natural property or one artificially changed by chemical reagents. By altering the hydrophobic (water-repelling) or hydrophilic (water-attracting) conditions of their surfaces, mineral particles suspended in water can be induced to adhere to air bubbles passing through a flotation cell or to remain in the pulp. The air bubbles pass to the upper surface of the pulp and form a froth, which, together with the attached hydrophobic minerals, can be removed. The tailings, containing the hydrophilic minerals, can be removed from the bottom of the cell.

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minerals7Process Plant Design And Engineering Services :

The basis of all good process design is sound interpretation of comprehensive test work performed on representative samples.  QMMPL have tie up with renowned metallurgists from Russian & Israel metallurgists and process engineers who are well experienced in the definition and interpretation of test work and the development of flexible metallurgical process plant flow sheets.  Once test work is complete and the flow sheet established

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* Prepare a comprehensive design basis defining all
* metallurgical plant design parameters
* Prepare mass/metallurgical balances
* Define equipment requirements
* Calculate the electrical supply requirements
* Prepare instrumentation process data sheets from P&IDs
* Work closely with recognized engineering companies
* Develop appropriate engineering infrastructure detail

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